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=== Normalization Procedure for Rate Estimates ===
=== Normalization Procedure for Rate Estimates ===
In order to get a realistic estimate of the expected rates due to the beam-gas background, the yields extracted from the thus produced simulations need to be normalized.  The factors that must be known for the normalization include the level of vacuum (or the gas density), the cross section for the p+A interaction, and the proton current in the machine.  The beam-gas collisions is essentially a fixed target collision with a proton hitting a "fixed" gas molecule.  The luminosity for this can be estimated from <math>L = \Phi \rho l</math>, where L is the luminosity, &Phi; is the proton flux (obtained by the beam current), &rho; is the (transverse) gas density, and l is the longitudinal length of the gas.  Then the rate can be obtained by multiplying the luminosity by the cross section of the interaction.  This rate can then be used as a scaling factor to the generated per event yields from the previous section.  Then these rates can be compared to the expected rates from physics events to get a feeling for how bad the impact of the background will be on the measurement.


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